Saturday, December 3, 2016

Superposition, Beyond Speed of Light? Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr


Entanglement is a process that is illustrated firstly by Thomas Young’s experiment commonly referred to as the double slit experiment. The double slit experiment raises the question of superposition, a key sticking point between Einstein and quantum mechanics, in his era the sticking point was with the likes of Niels Bohr, their argument must be settled by an experiment.

With Young’s experiment light tends to have a wave pattern at point of observation in the manner illustrated by figure 1. This wave pattern of course is very different when observation takes place at the slits, we get a particle pattern, but this is not important to know for purposes of the final question, was Einstein correct on insisting on locality or was he just been a spoil sport. 




Superposition is also shown in the Stern Gerlach experiments, by illustrating superposition by deduction entanglement is implied. The stern Gerlach experiments show at point of observation the polarity of a particle, this is illustrated in figure 2.



We say be deduction superposition leads to entanglement, and it is here that what can be called well experimented physics, probably the most experimented field in science, quantum mechanics. However great these experiments are they do have a logical flow, because they test for superposition not for entanglement. They are assuming they are testing for entanglement because superposition leads to the principles of entanglement, but tests concerning entanglement being thorough because of assumptions made in the tests for superposition, this leaves the debate open because they can never prove 100% what it is they are trying to because the tests are around superposition and superposition can’t prove entanglement merely support it.

We must first however look at the greater implications of one last enhancement to the double slit experiment. The double slit experiment is illustrated if figure 3.




At the point of observation we shall of course see a wave pattern as in figure 1. What happens when we combine the minds of Young and Stern and Gerlach, we get figure 4. 



What now is observed at the location of observation. The first possibility of course is we observe as in figure 1, a similar wave pattern. If this is the reality then the magnetic field would have no effect, this is highly unlikely. The second type of observation we can get is illustrated if figure 5.

Figure 5 shows the results of possible polarization associated with the proposed Young Stern Gerlach experiment.



Figure 6 shows another possible scenario from this proposed experiment, a bit more complicated but none the less a possibility.



Figures 5 and 6 illustrate polarization in wave form, these are real possible scenarios of the proposed experiments, have such relationships been considered, are they predicted, that is why experimentation is so important. In the long run nobody really knows what knowledge will lead to, Stern Gerlach experiment is only a possibility because somebody understood magnetism and created a compass, long ago.

Is the Young Stern Gerlach experiment worth it? That is a question just put forward, but the obvious answer is yes because a greater understanding of reality will be understood, greater efficiency in technology, ever more precise our measuring instruments.

The Young Stern Gerlach experiment is also important in that it illustrates to an observer of society how fashion affects everything including science. The fashion of the time was the debate of is it possible to travel faster than time and the question of entanglement has given proponents of faster than light a solid foundation, theoretically and experimentally. The Young Stern Gerlach experiment probably should have been done 50 – 70 years ago, just in order to understand wave theory better, just to understand polarization at greater understanding. If it had been done 50 – 70 years ago how would present equations look, possibly some little differences here and there.

Thomas Young’s experiment is so successful, political scientists believe it is so great it can not be named after him it belongs to the committee, so we have the Stern Gerlach experiment, but not the Young experiment, rather the double slit experiment. Being so successful nobody felt it could deliver anymore than superposition and entanglement. It can help us understand polarization better. Instead they immediately went to debate the results of the Young experiment, superposition and its implications.

Entanglement is clearly accepted but the question is, where does this superposition takes place, believe it or not it falls down to, if the entanglement is at the source Einstein is correct, nothing can travel faster than light, if it is at any time a measurement is taken, what is a measurement, it means a relationship has been built. We know that the first law of everything is that every relationship results in a loss of freedom. Measuring results in loss of freedom, so to answer he question merely by looking at the universe does the mouse change the nature of the universe, and the answer is yes, the photons will land in the eyes of the mouse rather than the back of the mouse. If the mouse was not in that spot the photons would hit the rocks, changing their location. It is about locality this debate. An insignificant mouse has changed the nature of the universe, it is just that humans do not understand every piece of information is important, it all has the same value, a knowl basically. Understanding information theory a knowl is the most basic particle, no, it is the most basic piece of information.

If the entanglement is not at the source that means something has gone faster than light, some type of signal, this seems pretty simple to grasp when talking at the quantum level. Successful experiments have been carried out, these tests are to test Bells inequalities. The way John Bells inequalities are set shows he is a clear supporter of Einstein, if the results of he experiment agree with Bells inequalities, then Einstein is correct. If the results contradict Bells inequalities entanglement is faster than light, it has to be looking at the experiment carried out by Alain Aspect. Figure 7 illustrates Aspects experiment.



Figure 7 shows one of the most important experiments in quantum mechanics, without the double slit experiment however we would not have this so important experiment. We have a photon emitter, it shoots two entangled particles and they must pass through a filter, these filters only allow photons of certain polarization to go through. If both particles pass through the filter and if both particles do not pass through the filter that proves entanglement. And just in case theory is not good enough we have a measuring instrument to measure the polarization. 

For the sake of defending general relativity and locality, Einstein said entanglement, superimposition occurred locally, at the source, inside the photon emitter, it is absurd to think of it as happening at the filters, that would imply something is moving faster than the speed of light, to send a message and tell the other particle what it should do.

To counter this argument Aspect set up the filters in such a way that they changed their polarity so rapidly it is impossible to think of anything being able to fool it, we are witnessing a truly random event. There was 100% correlation if one particle went through the other particle went through, if one particle did not go through the other particle did not go through 100% of the time, the experiment has been carried out over and over, Bells inequalities are broken, something is happening at a speed greater than light.

Bells inequalities are for testing for locality, not entanglement, the argument is entanglement faster than light rests upon the Alain Aspect experiment being correct. What this experiments says and rests on this, if the polarization filters are random enough, then we have a random even, and this random event is 100% correct in supporting the idea that what polarization the particles will take place will be at the moment of measurement not at the source of the particles. This is what is being tested and from here it is inferred that because the moment when the particles decide their charge is at measurement, something is traveling faster than light. And to prove it we have figure 8.



Now in figure 8 we have Aspects experiment used to prove that entanglement is faster than light. The underlying idea is that the photon emitter emits 2 entangled photons going in opposite directions. The entanglement will be confirmed by the measuring instruments as they measure the polarity. However, when the photon that travels the shorter distance is registered, immediately a beam of light is shot. The assumption is that if the particle that has to travel the longer distance hits its measuring instrument before the beam of light, there is a timer to measure who gets first the particle or the beam of light, then this is valid proof that entanglement is faster than light. Well calculated results have come up that show that entanglement is from2 times the speed of light to several thousand times the speed of light, it is not consistent.

The big flaw in figure 8 of course is that the particle that travels the longer distance already has a head start over the beam of light, in quantum mechanics that is a big head start, even electrons are travelling at near the speed of light, this is why the results vary so much, sometimes light is 35 times the speed of light, sometimes 10 000 times the speed of light according to the taste of one’s calculations

Science is not about taste, what one favors, it is about reality. First of all, Aspects experiment where designed around the idea of locality, when do particles decide their polarity. If they decide the polarity at the source, there is nothing faster than light, if they occur at point of measure there something faster than light. That is all the experiment can decide, it can’t be adapted for something else, because one can still argue that the change in the filters is not random enough, but if they are random enough there is something faster than light, the argument is around locality not entanglement.

It has been explained why Aspects experiment can not be adapted to test if entanglement is faster than light such as figure 8, how can a photon catch up to a photon, and the resistance in the measuring instruments gives varying results of false faster than light from 2 to almost 10 000 times faster than light, this is disrespect to science. Aspects experiment only say choices are made at moment of measure therefore there is something faster than light, it is instantaneous. It is not 2 times faster than light or 10 000 times, that is mathematics, just enjoying maths for maths sakes. It is instantaneous, an experiment must be designed to measure this instantaneous entanglement, the old-fashioned way, a good old 100-meter dash, a good old sprint, what is faster.

We know from Aspects experiments that have been repeated over and over that entanglement is true, those that fully support the results must accept it is instantaneous, entanglement and light must race, we are no longer testing locality, we are testing speed. Aspects experiments are very important, they are important around teleportation, around commercial commodities like the quantum phone, we must scrutinize ourselves, can we prove ourselves with out doubt. Only a race, something designed to test speed not locality can solve that, this is shown in figure 9. Figure 8 is cheating, it’s like asking one 100-meter runner to do a somersault before and then catch up, photon versus photon. Such faith that one is willing to cheat.



Figure 9 shows a simple race we have two entangled particles, one red one blue, they are entangled so obviously when the red one turns blue the blue one must instantaneously turn red. We have a laser emitter, and we have a timer that will tell us when the blue particle becomes red and light reaches the same distance between the 2 particles. This experiment is around entanglement not locality. It does not matter where the particle got its polarity, at the source or at moment of measure, what matters is the 2 particles are entangled.

The experiment works such that we reverse the polarization of the red particle, at that very moment that the polarization of the red particle occurs a beam of light is released as a laser. When the blue particle reverse polarity the timer will register it, when light reaches the same distance as between the red particle and blue particle the timer will register it, whoever gets there first is the winner and the debate is settled once and for all.

If entanglement is true, the expected results are not that entanglement is not twice as fast as light, or 10 000 times as fast as light. The expected results that taking out the imprecision's in the measuring instruments it can be concluded that by the time the blue particle reverse polarization, light has not even left its source, mathematics as we know it must also change to keep up with our understanding of information. 

Bhekuzulu Khumalo

Sunday, November 13, 2016

The Theory of Everything: Newton, Information, Complexity, and Evolution


Quoting from the Polaris Project website, Isaac Newton’s first law can be stated as “Every mass, or body, be it at rest or moving, will not alter its present state unless acted upon by an external force.” The other laws of Newton flow from the logic that is implied in this first law.

By merely stating that a body will not alter its present state unless acted upon by an external force immediately implies the second law of Newton that, “The change in direction or speed of an object, is proportional to the amount of force acting on that body. The change in motion is also in the direction in which the force is acting.”

It is when we understand information for what it is can we reappreciate the thoughts of Newton. This idea, this reality of information has its roots from those who pursue quantum physics, some times they call themselves quantum mechanics, sometimes particle physicists, what ever suites you, but a select few of these thinkers hit on the reality of information and have passed it on. Though this reality coming from quantum physics, it is a much bigger concept than quantum physics, everything includes every discipline known to mankind, it’s all dealing with information even when they are doing things like trying to control the rain through a dance.


Informationis everything, everything is information even nothing is information, nothing is part of everything. The most basic information is the elementary particle.” Immediately one can go into philosophy, if nothing informs us there is nothing how can the elementary particle be everything, be the most basic piece of information, maybe physics has not come to an end. But be warned before you go into mysticism the entire known material is matter, we are looking at the roots of matter, the basic particle. But this philosophical question is beneath the laws of everything. This answers the questions is traditional philosophy superior to science no, because the clearest definition of information comes from quantum physics.

By answering the idea of information and rightfully concluding that information is everything, though from a premise that had no idea or a concept of understanding what everything is. Quantum physics followed an ancient line of thought, the first traditional philosophical milestone. What is a human being? So there is absolutely no need to frown on another, the question of what is a human being quantum physics answered that right down to quantum entanglement. Quantum physics answered that human beings are just like everything else we can detect presently, a human being is an information package.

Why appreciate Newton again. It is because when we understand information when understand how close Newton was to the theory of everything, destroyed merely by pursuit of alchemy, the times, Newton was around a long time ago, to only have missed entanglement is not bad, his first law only misses entanglement, not a bad achievement, not a bad thought for the times, we are watching television today all remotely controlled of course, a very different time from Newton.

If we say information is everything, we need at least one fact confirming from it beyond the mere statement that information is everything. “The first law of information, the first law of everything is that every relationship has a loss of freedom. We can put it at it’s most crude as every relationship has a cost.” A meaningful way to understand the first law of everything is from Suzanne Ngatai on a comment she made on Google + “when information is identified it therefore categorizes itself by 'being' therefore the cost is also the 'not being' of something else that comes along with this categorization…” She managed to unite the concepts of cost and freedom from the definition, obviously, the author of the first law of everything had no idea that the two concepts could be united so perfectly. Her comments will come useful in helping to understand how Newton is ‘new’ again as he enhances information and opens other doors not possible to imagine if a few bright sparks in physics told us and convinced us that information is everything.

Before getting to Newton let us understand why the first law of everything is bigger than the question if nothing informs us there is nothing how can the elementary particle be the most basic piece of information? The question seems sticky, but if that nothing can achieve a relationship there will be a loss of freedom. What can be outside the law of everything, the question can not be answered, it is foolish to even try, how do you know there is nothing, because nothing has informed you of itself and categorized as nothing. Whatever will be discovered will have no choice but to fall under the first law of everything even if it must be categorized outside a particle. Even if this is a hologram and there is a God out there, creator of it all, he has a relationship with his hologram.

Newton’s first law can be translated into the thoughts of everything, into the logic behind information being everything understanding that its first law is unbreakable.

Recalling Newton’s first law, every mass, or body, be it at rest or moving, will not alter its present state unless acted upon by an external force, let’s attempt to understand this strictly in terms of information. If this is successfully achieved, Newton helps explain evolution, it is not difficult, an information package will remain in it’s present state unless a relationship is established. This could very well be considered the second law of information, the second law of everything. Even if this is a hologram and there is a God out there, before creation of the hologram there was no relationship with the entity.

Newton has inspired the second law of information, immediately stepping above any subject whose laws are limited to particles, if anything out there exists that is not a particle, it too will remain subject to both laws of information, both laws of everything.

By understanding both laws in unison we begin to understand complexity better, but more importantly a very important concept of complexity, the evolutionary process. That we have a thumb is a cost, that is why it is important to understand words for being words, to understand that a cost, a loss of freedom is not necessarily a bad word, we are the products of incredible amounts of different categories of information in relationships upon relationships, humans are very complex. A huge variety of information is locked in our composition.

Complexity is a process that involves many variables, many pieces of information all in a relationship, it thus becomes more unpredictable. Understanding of complexity is aided when one understands information, starting first with the reality that everything is information. Multiple relationships will involve multiple forces.

We can not conclude what information prefers to remain as is or to change but we do know change requires a relationship and a loss of freedom. This of course need not be a bad thing, it is a neutral thing, remembering Suzanne Ngatai’s statement “when information is identified it therefore categorizes itself by 'being' therefore the cost is also the 'not being' of something else that comes along with this categorization…” That is all the cost is, don’t think of it as a reward, sometimes information packages are completely destroyed but the same process has occurred, a relationship, it is a cost even if it is as beneficial as evolution.

We do know that information prefers to survive, we generally abhor suicide, why didn’t the victim march on with the struggles of existing as a human being. Matter seems to have abolished anti matter from its surroundings in order to survive and thrive.

Evolution occurs because an information package needs to change to survive its environment, so that it can survive as best as possible given that it would be sharing a lot of space with different information packages. Given the circumstances a cheetah developed speed to survive its environment, a polar bear developed power and thick fur to survive its surroundings.

At one time, all bears had a common ancestor. Having a common ancestor means at one time they where all very much similar. The common ancestor is like the basic design. Having a common ancestor meant at one time all bears where similar information packages without great differentiation genetically, less variety than exists today.

Moving towards a cold environment the polar bear subconsciously desired more fur and blubber, a way to keep warm in the new environment it has found itself in. The conscious is just a part of our mind, our mind functions as our control center, it’s us, it is nothing more than organized information, just a complex machine, a complex computer.

Every thought, every desire, every emotion is merely a result of how information is organized in the brain. Our actions are a result of the relationship we have with our minds, and the way our minds are organized depends on how information is organized, we call this being wired, one can think of being wired as a giant computer, organized in 1’s and 0’s, how our 1’s and 0’s are organized depends on our experiences, are we racist, tribalism, believer in science as best language science can easily be tarnished by man, you just don’t publish those you hate and envy, so it is not a universal language, because everything is affected by politics, by how humans are wired/ programmed.

Information wants to survive in the most stable manner as possible. If this necessitates entering a relationship it must accept these costs to continue existing. Iron is reactive, it must accept to being oxidized if it exists in an oxidized environment, this relationship must be for iron to exist, that is how iron has come to be, those are its properties.

Life too wants to survive, that is why it adapts. One can see clearly the second law of information, inspired by Newton in action at the most complex of levels. The second law of everything not forgetting that it should scientifically be called law of information, snobbery aside the two are identical, but we know what something is because it informs us what it is. An information package will remain in it’s present state unless a relationship is established is the second law of information. The bears would all have remained the same if it was not that they had a relationship to their new found environments, affecting their subconscious, having a relationship with the rest of the body the genes adapted to fulfill this relationship with the subconscious need for survival. Evolution and complexity in general will never defy the second law, it makes us understand.

Our relationship with the environment gave us a thumb and a larger brain, though the larger brain is far more important. The polar bear preferred more muscle to break the ice, and more blubber to survive the extreme cold. Some animals like the crocodile, the shark stopped evolving millions of years ago. Their subconscious did not see the need to change, no relationship established the shark and crocodile remained as are since the days of the crocodile. The sharks and crocodiles saw themselves as the best as they could be subconsciously hence the lack of evolvement, but humans continued to strive such that we are still evolving. Crocodiles and sharks not evolving for millions of years means there was no information in the mind desiring improvement, hence they remained as are thanks to the second law of information that an information package will remain in its present state unless a relationship is established.

That there are two laws of everything suggests that the theory of everything is a big concept, we can understand evolution from it, as well as why iron rusts, the laws of everything, the laws of information can be considered a discipline. But the laws must be consistent in every discipline, in every way, they must be unbreakable.

Bhekuzulu Khumalo


A Concern from Thermodynamics



As usual an after editorial is added if and only if there is a major concern, I mention names when it is to uplift, but will not mention a name because if the person is not mature enough to understand it is merely a discussion, there are problems, but obviously to make an edition ones opinion is respected. But this concern with thermodynamics is real.

Thermodynamics is an inspiration for this theory of everything, but it has many shortcomings, please note I already wrote an article information and the origins of entropy, yes entropy was an inspiration but not a complete theory. Let us look at entropy, not forgetting it was the initial inspiration for a theory of everything.

The first law of entropy is known as the law of conservation of energy. Really, what about anti matter. That is all to be said on the first law, does anti matter break it, if it does, it is not a law of everything, it is steam engine physics, an isolated system, not everything.

The second law of entropy says things cannot be reversed, but in smelters, ancient man 30 000 years ago had smelters, creating pure elements copper, iron, That is why it is important to read other works, the isolation of information is reversing the process, that is how we know things because information could be isolated, pure iron last existed after super novas, man has reversed the process, taking oxidized iron ore and purifying it in furnaces. Processes can be reversed, here is a good journal piece to read just to understand isolation of information, the piece is called why economics is a science, information the grand unifier

Think about it, when you switch of a television you can do the reverse, switch it on, thermodynamics is therefore not about information, but a segment of information, things are reversed everyday, information reverses everyday, thermodynamics has limited principles applicable to the theory of everything.You change your mind back after thinking a decision, thermodynamics is too limited.

The third and final law of thermodynamics suggests at absolute zero there is no activity, have these people tested dark matter, is there no activity at absolute zero?

Theory of everything is simple, and some straightforward scientists like Newton were close, thermodynamics is not close, but was first inspiration long before Newton and his inspiration for the second law of everything. Thanks, William Rice for the concerns you raised about Thermodynamics in LinkedIn, thanks, no show, this is just genuine response to concerns raised about merely generalization, that is true, but some things can not be sufficiently generalized.

Why a theory of everything, when we can get relationships that affect all things we are so much the better. If it seems so easy, it is because great thoughts have gone into it, subtracting this, adding that. A theory of everything is meant to be so easy that high school people can comprehend it, make it simple an we can see the entire picture.  As simple such that a high school art student understands everything is connected.

The two laws of information are complimentary, and simple, the first law information will remain in its present state unless a relationship is established, nothing changed, it was static. Then a relationship was established.

Once a relationship is established the second law comes into effect, there is a cost, matter annihilated and abolished anti matter, and we got our big bang, theoretically, but the laws remain true factually.

To get to the definition that information is everything costs billions, if not trillions of dollars, use it, it makes everything easier, even the existence of a God does not debunk the laws of everything, they are well vetted.You get pure iron from a smelter, process can be reversed, just taking more energy to reverse, a collider is just reversing the process, let knowledge flow forward, its information, forget that steam engine physics, Newton has been vetted correctly his inspiration can pass any test, step by step. 

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Bhekuzulu Khumalo

I write about knowledge economics, information, liberty, and freedom